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Earthly and Eternal Families

The Earthly Family

Catholic Doctrine

The family is at the core of social and spiritual life as the institution in which married couples are to offer themselves in love and the procreation of life. The family is the basic social unit in which children being reared can learn the values of morality, the fear and love of God, and the most appropriate use of agency.

The Catholic Church defines family in this way: “A man and a woman united in marriage, together with their children, form a family. This institution is prior to any recognition by public authority, which has an obligation to recognize it. It should be considered the normal reference point by which the different forms of family relationship are to be evaluated” (Catechism 2202).

More specifically, the Christian family is a spiritual union of parents and siblings in the likeness of the Trinity between the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. The procreation and edification of children reflects the same love, devotion, and work of the Father towards us. Families are called to accept and worship Jesus Christ, to pray and read the scriptures daily, and to preach the gospel. The faith of children will be sown and grow within the homes of the faithful, dubbing the family home the “domestic church” where Christ, communion with God, the qualities of human life, and Christian love and kindness are taught and practiced. The importance of the family is so great that it prompts the Church to exclaim: "The well-being of the individual person and of human and Christian society is intimately linked with the healthy condition of that community produced by marriage and family" (Gaudium Et Spes 47 § 1, Promulgated by Pope Paul VI, December 7, 1965).

Responsibilities for the well being of the family rest upon three key components that influence the health of the family: the parents, the children, and society.

Parents’ Responsibilities
Parents are obliged to look upon their children as children of God, to teach them God’s law, to encourage them to fulfill God’s law, and in esteem their children respectfully as human beings. Parents bear the primary responsibility for their children’s education in all things, including the virtues, which are best facilitated in establishing a home where “tenderness, forgiveness, respect, fidelity, and disinterested service is the rule” (Catechism 2223). For parents to accomplish this they must educate themselves and practice self-denial, righteous judgment, and self-control, while teaching their children to cling to put spiritual matters above those which are material and prone to one’s instincts.

A child’s education in the gospel should begin as early as possible with the parents in a primary role, but also including other family members helping one another grow in faith and love of God. Parents should instruct their children in prayer with a key purpose of identifying their profession and purpose as children of God. Such vocations should be respected and encouraged by parents while imparting an understanding that a Christian’s primary vocation is to love and follow Jesus Christ. Parents must also help children avoid the debasing pressures that endanger our communities and families today.
Admitting their own imperfections and weaknesses before their children, parents have the solemn responsibility of being examples of Christianity to their children so that correction and guidance may be more effectively accepted and absorbed. The Catholic Church follows the admonition of Sirach who wrote: “He who loves his son chastises him often, that he may be his joy when he grows up. He who disciplines his son will benefit from him, and boast of him among his intimates” (Sir. 30:1-2). Some translations use the phrase, “He who loves his son will not spare the rod.”

Children’s Responsibilities
The forth commandment admonishes children to “Honor your father and your mother, that you may have a long life in the land which the LORD, your God, is giving you” (Ex. 20:12). By developing a disposition of gratitude toward parents, children can develop “filial piety” (respect and love for one’s parents), enabling them to progress in “wisdom and grace” (Catechism 2215). Sirach urges Children to “Remember, of these parents you were born; what can you give them for all they gave you?” (Sir 7:28). Parents are owed by their children obedience, appreciation, respect, and help—such actions bring about love and harmony in the home and among family.

Society’s Responsibilities
The government of society is called upon to respect human rights and to facilitate the exercising of free will by individuals and families. The Catholic parish is at the core of the spiritual life of Christian families and a place of religious learning for families, in addition to being the Eucharistic community.
Strong families make for a strong community and therefore society bares a specific responsibility to sustain and fortify families, including marriages which are at the center of family living. The Church calls on civil authorities to take seriously its duty "to acknowledge the true nature of marriage and the family, to protect and foster them, to safeguard public morality, and promote domestic prosperity" (Gaudium Et Spes 52 § 2, Promulgated by Pope Paul VI, December 7, 1965).

The Church urges families to take responsibility for all of its members: young and old, sick and healthy, rich and poor, and the able and disabled. James stated this commission best when he wrote: “Religion that is pure and undefiled before God and the Father is this: to visit orphans and widows in their affliction and to keep oneself unstained from the world” (James 1:27).

On November 22, 1981, Pope John Paul II published The Apostolic Exhortation Familiaris Consortio (The Christian Family in the Modern World). The document addresses in-depth the issues most affecting families today, including spiritual, physical and social aspects of life. The document is 34,138 words, constituting approximately 64 pages (12 point Times Roman font and 1” margins).

See Catechism 1666, 2202, 2205, 2207, 2208, 2210, 2215, 2222 to 2224, 2226, 2248, 2250, 2251, 2253, 2254, and 2685.

Latter-day Saint Doctrine

The Lord has commanded all of his children to “Organize yourselves; prepare every needful thing; and establish a house, even a house of prayer, a house of fasting, a house of faith, a house of learning, a house of glory, a house of order, a house of God” (D&C 88:119).

The family is the most important entity in the Church of Jesus Christ and one that can last forever in the eternities. The main purpose of the Church is to assist families in achieving this goal, to obtain eternal blessings, and to enter into exaltation. The Church as its organization, leadership, programs and activities are intended to strengthen families and their members and support this purpose and mission for all families on earth.

Since the time of Adam and Eve, where the commandment was given to “be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth” (Gen. 1:28), Heavenly Father has willed that married parents provide tabernacles of flesh for his spirit children. Once in the world, God’s children are then to be raised by parents in a family in collaboration with Heavenly Father in order to bring to pass his purposes and plan.

To reach its full potential in the Lord, a family operates with each member carrying out a set of temporal and spiritual responsibilities. These responsibilities include those given to a father and mother individually, parents together, and children.

A father should fully assume his patriarchal role as the head of the family by exercising his priesthood and taking serious all of the responsibilities associated with these callings with “long-suffering, by gentleness and meekness, and by love unfeigned” (D&C 121:41). Fathers are to lead by example. Fathers lead the family in prayer, scripture reading, attending church meetings, and other activities as prescribed by the Church. It is the father’s responsibility to support the family in all of their temporal needs. This is often accomplished by the father as being the primary income of the home, or at least being a steady and strong contributor of income in conjunction with the mother or others under certain circumstances.

A mother will not only bring children into the world physically in partnership with God, but is called to teach and care for children in a special and specific role separate from that of the father. President David O McKay taught: “ The noblest calling in the world is motherhood. True motherhood is the most beautiful of all arts, the greatest of all professions. She who can paint a masterpiece, or who can write a book that will influence millions, deserves the admiration and plaudits of mankind; but she who rears successfully a family of healthy, beautiful sons and daughters, whose immortal souls will exert an influence throughout the ages long after paintings shall have faded, and books and statues shall have decayed or have been destroyed, deserves the highest honor that man can give, and the choicest blessings of God” (Pathways to Happiness, comp. Llewelyn R. McKay (1957), 116).

Mothers teach the gospel to children through work and play, helping children comprehend life and the world they live in. Mothers are the primary home-makers in creating a loving and nurturing environment within the home, while helping children build strong and appropriate feelings of self-esteem.

As parents there are many things that both fathers and mothers perform within the family together as “equal partners…to provide for the spiritual, emotional, intellectual, and physical needs of the family” (Gospel Principles, 236). Parents lead and teach their children by example starting with love, thoughtfulness, and kindness towards each other to demonstrate the joys of marriage. Parents together are given serious charge to teach their children the gospel—failing to do so will bring grave consequences upon the heads of the parents (D&C 68:25). Parents are to teach siblings to love one another and to abstain from arguing and quarrelling and to “teach them to walk in the ways of truth and soberness… to love one another, and to serve one another” (Mosiah 4:14-15). Parents should be kind, loving and respectful of children, but with a spirit of firmness and diligent resolve.

A child should share the vision and responsibility of their parents to create a healthy and joyful home. Children should obey all of the commandments of God and contribute to the harmony in a home through cooperation, love, and work. An important commandment for children of all ages is to “Honor thy father and thy mother…” (Exodus 20:12). To honor means to love, respect, and obey. Paul told the Ephesians, “obey your parents in the Lord: for this is right” (Ephesians 6:1).

The family is under constant attack. Satan is well aware of the importance of families and the impact they can have on thwarting his plan of evil. Satan desires to destroy families through a variety of means that include temptation, contention, and pride. To remain strong the General Authorities of the Church urge families to pray together daily, have family scripture study daily, to hold weekly family home evenings, to serve one another, and to spend time together in wholesome activities that bring family members together.

On September 23, 1995, the First Presidency and the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints published The Family, a Proclamation to the World. The document is 634 words, constituting 1.25 pages (12 point Times Roman font and 1” boarders), with the printed version being 1 page long.

See Gospel Principles, 231, 232, 234, 236 to 239, Conference Report, Apr. 1976, p. 5; or Ensign, May 1976, p. 5, and the Family Proclamation.

See chapter 15 in Catholic Roots, Mormon Harvest for a more comprehensive explanation and commentary on Earthly Families

Temples—The Sealing of Eternal Families

Catholic Doctrine

The Catholic Church has parish, diocese, seminary, convent, administrative, and other building sites worldwide, none of which are considered temples. Temples are considered a place where the people of God in earlier times went to be educated, pray, offer sacrifices, and participate in ordinances and rituals that magnified worship of God. There have been abuses and excesses associated with temples, both ancient and modern. Ritual in some cases became an obsession. The attitude of Jesus toward the Jewish temple and its spiritual evolution is encapsulated in the following passage: “Jesus venerated the Temple by going up to it for the Jewish feasts of pilgrimage, and with a jealous love he loved this dwelling of God among men. The Temple prefigures his own mystery. When he announces its destruction, it is as a manifestation of his own execution and of the entry into a new age in the history of salvation, when his Body would be the definitive Temple” (Catechism 593).

Worship of God is not linked to any one particular place, and thus there is no need for a temple, as there was in times of old. Today the Church is the temple of the Holy Spirit, and the Holy Spirit is “the temple of the living God” (2 Cor. 6:16, Eph. 2:21). This cascades down to each individual being a temple of the Holy Spirit on which the Church is built. In this way the temple is not a place, but rather a symbolic corridor which the Holy Spirit occupies in the lives of the Church and its members.

See Catechism 593, 797, 809, 1179, 1197, 2581, and glossary.

Latter-day Saint Doctrine

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints defines temples as the following: “In the temples, members of the Church who make themselves eligible can participate in the most exalted of the redeeming ordinances that have been revealed to mankind. There, in a sacred ceremony, an individual may be washed and anointed and instructed and endowed and sealed. And when we have received these blessings for ourselves, we may officiate for those who have died without having had the same opportunity. In the temples sacred ordinances are performed for the living and for the dead alike” (Boyd K. Packer, “The Holy Temple,” 2001 Intellectual Reserve, Inc. All rights reserved).

As houses of the Lord, temples are places for learning and participating in the sacred ordinances that will allow us to return and live with our Heavenly Father in the eternities. All that the Church does points to the hallowed ordinances that are performed in the holy temples of the world.

Because of the sacredness of the temple, it is required that all individuals be found worthy before entering—adults and youth. For adults, worthiness is determined through two brief interviews: one with a member of the individual’s bishopric or branch president, and a second with a member of the individual’s stake presidency or a mission president. These interviews are not interrogations.

Members are asked simple questions about basic moral conduct, obedience to the commandments, and adherence to their covenants. If there are no major transgressions, a temple recommend is granted. A temple recommend, which based upon personal worthiness lasts two years for adults and one year for youth, is required to enter the temple.

For youth ages 12 to 18 or adult new members of less than one year, a temporary recommend may be granted to participate in baptismal and confirmation ordinances. The questions asked are similar to those asked for a two-year recommend.

The sacred nature of the ordinances performed in the temple makes it inappropriate for members to discuss the details of these ordinances outside the temple. This is true also of personal experiences had in the temple that relate to ordinances themselves.

The temple is respite from the world. It is the experience of Walden Pond without Thoreau’s account of it. The temple is, for this if nothing else, a wondrous experience—all the more wondrous because it must be earned through worthiness.

Regarding the ordinances and this principle of sacredness, Church members are provided the following counsel: “They are kept confidential lest they be given to those who are unprepared. Curiosity is not a preparation. Deep interest itself is not a preparation. Preparation for the ordinances includes preliminary steps: faith, repentance, baptism, confirmation, worthiness, a maturity and dignity worthy of one who comes invited as a guest into the house of the Lord” (“Preparing to Enter the Holy Temple,” Preparing to Enter the Holy Temple, 1, website from the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, accessed 10/27/07).

The ordinances performed in the temple include baptisms, confirmations, initiatories, priesthood ordinations, endowments, and sealings. While baptisms and confirmations are always done for those who have passed on, initiatories, ordinations, endowments, and sealings can be done for the living and the dead.

Temple baptisms and confirmations are performed for ancestors of Church members who while on the earth were either not baptized at all, or who were not baptized by the proper authority. Jesus taught that baptism was essential for an individual to enter into the kingdom of God (John 3:5). While this principle remains in force, God in his infinite mercy has prepared a way for those who have died without being baptized to be baptized and confirmed by proxy in the temple. Church members can go to the temple and “stand in” for those who are deceased and be baptized and confirmed—thus offering them this ordinance and blessing. Because agency is an eternal principle, the deceased are completely free in the spirit world to accept or reject a baptism and confirmation that was performed on their behalf.

The initiatory is an ordinance that can be likened to a washing and anointing. This ordinance is done in preparation for the endowment and includes the bestowing of the Melchizedek Priesthood for male recipients. After completing an initiatory for one’s self, an individual can complete by proxy initiatories for those who are deceased.

The endowment is an ordinance which enriches the recipient as the name would suggest—something of great worth being bestowed. Brigham Young described the endowment in this way: “Your endowment is, to receive all those ordinances in the House of the Lord, which are necessary for you, after you have departed this life, to enable you to walk back to the presence of the Father, passing the angels who stand as sentinels, being able to give them the key words, the signs and tokens, pertaining to the holy Priesthood, and gain your eternal exaltation in spite of earth and hell” (Discourses of Brigham Young, comp. John A. Widtsoe [Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1971], 416).

Regarding the covenants that are made by those receiving their endowment (living or deceased), Elder James E. Talmage wrote that individuals covenant to ““...observe the law of strict virtue and chastity, to be charitable, benevolent, tolerant and pure; to devote both talent and material means to the spread of truth and the uplifting of the race; to maintain devotion to the cause of truth; and to seek in every way to contribute to the great preparation that the earth may be made ready to receive her King,—the Lord Jesus Christ. With the taking of each covenant and the assuming of each obligation a promised blessing is pronounced, contingent upon the faithful observance of the conditions” (James E. Talmage, The House of the Lord [Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1968]).

Endowed members are given the blessing of wearing the temple garment (underclothing) for the remainder of their lives (provided they retain their membership). The garment, which is worn according to specific instructions, provides a constant reminder of the covenants made in the temple, protection against the adversary, and serves as an outward expression of a member’s inward commitment to follow Jesus Christ.

The crowning ordinance of the temple is celestial marriage, where a husband and wife make sacred covenants and are sealed together for time and all eternity. In cases where a husband and wife have children (alive or deceased), those children are also sealed to the parents. Where additional children are born after the sealing, those children are automatically sealed to the parents as being “born under the covenant.” It is through this sealing ordinance that families can be together forever.
The temple is rich with symbolism of the gospel of Jesus Christ. It is a place where we will make the most sacred covenants of our eternal lives. We are urged to keep and obey every covenant that we make in the holy temple so that the blessings upon us “shall be of full force when they are out of the world; and they shall pass by the angels, and the gods, which are set there, to their exaltation and glory in all things, as hath been sealed upon their heads, which glory shall be a fulness and a continuation of the seeds forever and ever” (D&C 132:19).

While the temple is a place that allows us to participate in sacred priesthood ordinances, it is also a place of prayer, peace, and revelation. In the temple we can receive inspiration and guidance on matters that we take before the Lord. Adding to the peace and tranquility of the temple are the many individuals around us who are dressed in white to symbolize the purity and consecrated nature of heaven—especially in the Celestial Room of each temple.

See Gospel Principles, 245, James E. Talmage, The House of the Lord, Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1968)

See chapter 15 in Catholic Roots, Mormon Harvest for a more comprehensive explanation and commentary on Temples

Eternal Families

Catholic Doctrine

There is no Catholic doctrine on the sealing of families for time and all eternity; however, the Catechism of the Catholic Church includes the following statement on the possibility of a “reunion” in the afterlife: “A farewell to the deceased is his final "commendation to God" by the Church. It is "the last farewell by which the Christian community greets one of its members before his body is brought to its tomb." The Byzantine tradition expresses this by the kiss of farewell to the deceased: By this final greeting "we sing for his departure from this life and separation from us, but also because there is a communion and a reunion. For even dead, we are not at all separated from one another, because we all run the same course and we will find one another again in the same place. We shall never be separated, for we live for Christ, and now we are united with Christ as we go toward him . . . we shall all be together in Christ” (Catechism 1690).

Although this statement is not explicit in any way about the heavenly gathering of families in the eternities, it does imply that some kind of gathering of loved ones does take place, laying the foundation of hope for the faithful.

Latter-day Saint Doctrine

By the authority of the Melchizedek Priesthood, which has the power in the holy temple to bind on earth and in heaven (Matt. 16:19), families can be sealed together for time and all eternity. Death cannot separate those who remain faithful to the covenants they make in the temple. Mothers, fathers, children, and ancestors will be together forever in the eternities in the holy mansions of God the Father.

See chapter 15 in Catholic Roots, Mormon Harvest for a more comprehensive explanation and commentary on Eternal Families

Redeeming the Dead—Aiding Ancestors as Part of Eternal Families

Catholic Doctrine

As part of the final phase of the mission of Jesus Christ on earth, he descended into hell so that "The gospel was preached even to the dead" (1 Pet. 4:6). In doing so the message of redemption was shared with all men, regardless of their time and place on earth before their death, making available salvation to all. This great act of love was described by the apostle John as "the dead will hear the voice of the Son of God, and those who hear will live" (John 5:25).

The Catholic Church today honors the memory of the dead in purgatory and offers prayers on their behalf. These prayers have the power to help those beyond the grave in “loosing them from their sins”, while “making their intercession for us effective” (Catechism 958). This practice of praying and making atonement for the dead is mentioned in the second book of Maccabees. These prayers and suffrage, along with the Eucharistic sacrifice, almsgiving, indulgences, and works of penance are offered so that the dead may be purified and led to the opportunity to realize the beatific vision of God.

Ultimately the dead are in the hands of God to render mercy as he sees fit to bestow. The prayers and offerings of the faithful on behalf of the dead are given to seek God’s mercy for the souls in purgatory.

The Catholic Church rejects all forms of “divination” with respect to the dead, including appeals to Satan, illusions of bringing back the dead, and fortune telling. Such admonition to turn away from that which disrespects the power and love of God extends to astrology, palm reading, horoscopes, and so forth.

Consulting horoscopes, astrology, palm reading, interpretation of omens and lots, the phenomena of clairvoyance, and recourse to mediums all conceal a desire for power over time, history, and, in the last analysis, other human beings, as well as a wish to conciliate hidden powers. They each contradict the honor, respect, and loving fear that we owe to God alone.

See Catechism 634, 958, 962, 1032, 1055, 1498, and 2116.

Latter-day Saint Doctrine

The scriptures make clear that Christ himself visited the spirit world and commenced the preaching of the gospel to the dead. John 5:25 states, “Verily, verily, I say unto you, The hour is coming, and now is, when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God: and they that hear shall live.” 1 Peter 3:18-19 states, “For Christ also hath once suffered for sins, the just for the unjust, that he might bring us to God, being put to death in the flesh, but quickened by the Spirit: By which also he went and preached unto the spirits in prison.”

Doctrine and Covenants 138 records a vision given to President Joseph F. Smith on the preaching of the gospel to those in the spirit world. In that vision President Smith saw Jesus Christ “went not in person among the wicked and the disobedient who had rejected the truth to teach them” (D&C 138:29), but rather he chose spirits “from among the righteous” and thus “organized his forces and appointed messengers, clothed with power and authority, and commissioned them to go forth and carry the light of the gospel to them that were in darkness” (D&C 138:30).

The vision goes on to describe the work being done in the spirit world: These spirits “were taught faith in God, repentance from sin, vicarious baptism for the remission of sins, [and] the gift of the Holy Ghost by the laying on of hands” (D&C 138:33).

This great work of preaching the gospel in the spirit world, more specifically to those in spirit prison, is on-going and will continue until the second resurrection. These efforts are essential and demonstrate the great mercy of our Heavenly Father in not wanting to lose one soul in the eternities. Just as many of the righteous spirits are given the opportunity to preach the gospel in the spirit world, we are given the opportunity to take part in the work of redeeming the dead through vicarious ordinances performed on earth in the holy temple. This principle of vicarious work for the dead was given to the Prophet Joseph Smith by the Lord through revelation.

Although the concept of vicarious work may seem foreign to some Christians, President Gordon B. Hinckley offers the following: “I think that vicarious work for the dead more nearly approaches the vicarious sacrifice of the Savior Himself than any other work of which I know. It is given with love, without hope of compensation, or repayment or anything of the kind. What a glorious principle” (Gordon B. Hinckley, “Excerpts from Recent Addresses of President Gordon B. Hinckley,” Ensign, Jan 1998, 72).

When work is performed for the dead there isn’t an automatic change, nor does such work usurp one’s agency. These ordinances are performed and available for acceptance by the spirits in prison for their benefit in same way that the atonement of Christ is available to everyone who chooses to have faith in him and repent. Nothing is compelled. At every stage of this life and after it, one is free to choose.

The motivation behind this vicarious work in the temple is a combination of love of the individuals for whom the work is being performed and a firm and relentless testimony of the Savior. Todd Christofferson of the Presidency of the Seventy explains the nature of this testimony of Christ in relation to temple work: “Our anxiety to redeem the dead, and the time and resources we put behind that commitment, are, above all, an expression of our witness concerning Jesus Christ. It constitutes as powerful a statement as we can make concerning His divine character and mission. It testifies, first, of Christ’s Resurrection; second, of the infinite reach of His Atonement; third, that He is the sole source of salvation; fourth, that He has established the conditions for salvation; and, fifth, that He will come again” (D. Todd Christofferson of the Presidency of the Seventy, “The Redemption of the Dead and the Testimony of Jesus,” Ensign, Nov 2000, 9).

Latter-day Saints are encouraged to be diligent about completing family history to identify ancestors who are in need of temple ordinances for their eternal progression. In performing these labors of love, the latter generations are turning their hearts towards the earlier generations, fulfilling the prophecy from the Lord, “Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the Lord: And he shall turn the heart of the fathers to the children, and the heart of the children to their fathers, lest I come and smite the earth with a curse” (Mal. 4:5-6).

Latter-day Saints are encouraged to frequently attend the temple to perform the needed ordinances for their ancestors and others—an act of on-going service that brings love and inspiration into both the living and the dead. Each ordinance is done in the spirit and name of Jesus Christ who said, “I am the resurrection, and the life: he that believeth in me, though he were dead, yet shall he live” (John 11:25). There is a deep belief that Christ “died for all” (2 Cor. 5:15) and that “He is the propitiation for our sins: and not for ours only, but also for the sins of the whole world” (1 John 2:2).

The work of redeeming the dead, a work commenced by the Savior himself, is a devoted demonstration of the Latter-day Saint passion and belief that Christ will come again in his glory and majesty upon the earth. This work is in preparation of the second coming for both ourselves, and those who have passed on before us. The Church knows with a surety that “His grace and promises reach even those who in life do not find Him. Because of Him, the prisoners shall indeed go free” (D. Todd Christofferson of the Presidency of the Seventy, “The Redemption of the Dead and the Testimony of Jesus,” Ensign, Nov 2000, 9).

See D&C 124, 128, 132; The Personal Writings of Joseph Smith, ed. Dean C. Jessee (1984), 486; The Words of Joseph Smith, ed. Andrew F. Ehat and Lyndon W. Cook (1991), 49; D&C 124:29-36, “Excerpts from Recent Addresses of President Gordon B. Hinckley,” Ensign, Jan. 1998, 73., Ben Fenton, “Mormons Use Secret British War Files ‘to Save Souls,’ ” The Telegraph (London), 15 Feb. 1999., Greg Stott, “Ancestral Passion,” Equinox, April/May 1998, 45., and D. Todd Christofferson of the Presidency of the Seventy, “The Redemption of the Dead and the Testimony of Jesus,” Ensign, Nov 2000, 9

See chapter 15 in Catholic Roots, Mormon Harvest for a more comprehensive explanation and commentary on redeeming the dead

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